Entitlements are used to grant specific privileges to a program. For example, an entitlement is required to be able to use some of CoreTelephony.framework's calling APIs.
They are verified using the SecTaskCopyValueForEntitlement from Security.framework.
How to dump from binaries
Using ldid you can extract a property list containing the entitlements of a binary. To do so, you can do:
ldid -e binary
For example, to dump SpringBoard's entitlements you would do:
ldid -e /System/Library/CoreServices/SpringBoard.app/SpringBoard
This section could contain a table of binaries with their respective entitlements, their types (boolean or array), iOS versions where they exist, "Used by" and "Checked by".